Datura Stramonium, Linne'. The dried leaves and flowering tops, with not more than 3 p.c. stems over 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, nor 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash, yielding not less than .25 p.c. alkaloids

Habitat. Asia; naturalized universally (Europe, England, N. America, etc.)

Syn. Stramon., Jamestown Weed, Jimson Weed, Thorn-apple, Devil's (Mad) Apple, Stink-weed, Stink-wort, Devil's Trumpet, Fire-weed, Jamestown Lily, Apple of Peru; Br. Stramonii Folia; Fr. Stramoine, Pomme Epineuse, Feulles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfel, Dornapfel, Stechapfelblatter.

Da-tu'ra. L. Fr. Hind. D'hotura, a plant, or an alteration of Ar. Tatorah -- i.e., their name for the plant.

Stra-mo'ni-um. L. Contr. of Gr..., used by Dioscorides for this and for Atropa Belladonna.

Jimson-weed. For Jamestown, Va., where first found growiwng on ship rubbish.

Plant

Course annual bushy herb, rank, noxious odor; stems cylindrical, flattened, longitudinally wrinkled, occasionally 1-more-furrowed, succulent, greenish, purplish-brown, nearly solid, 1-1.5 M. (3-5 degrees) high, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') thick, 2-3-branched above ground; root tapering, white; flowers June-Sept., calyx tubular, green, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, 5's, corolla white, purplish, tubular, funnel-shaped, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 5 Cm. (2') broad, 5's; fruit capsule, 5 Cm. (2') long, ovate, obtusely quadrangular, covered with unequal, sharp, rigid spines, 4-celled, dehiscing half-way down into 4 segments; ovary 2-carpelled, 2-celled; seed numerous, brownish-black, angled, flattened, 4 Mm. (1/6') long. LEAVES, 5-30 Cm. (2-12') long, 4-15 Cm. (1 3/5-6') broad, usually matted, wrinkled, crushed, petiolate, inequilaterally ovate, acuminate, sinuate-toothed or angled, teeth few, acute with rounded sinuses, sparsely hairy, dark green, under surface light green; stems often flattened, wrinkled, furrowed; odor distinct, heavy, narcotic taste unpleasant, nauseous.

Powder

brownish-green -- stomata with 3 neighboring cells, calcium oxalate in rosette aggregate crystals; non-glandular hairs, few glandular hairs, tracheae, stem fragments with spiral tracheae, wood-fibers, collenchymatous cells, Microcrystals, no bast-fibers Solvents: 75 p.c. alcohol; diluted alcohol; hot water partially. Dose; gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

Datura Stramonium: flowering branch.

Datura Stramonium: a, fruit; b, stramonium seed and section, magnified 3 diam.

Adulterations

Leaves of allied species (usually smaller), belladonna, French cultivated, and Xan'thium Struma'rium.

Commercial

Plants were known possibly to the ancients, but not described until the 10th century (Gerarde), nor introduced into medicine before 1672 (Storck). They infest fields, roadsides waste places, near houses (never in mountains or woods), exhale rank, heavy, repellant narcotic odor, and grow well with us, especially in Michigan and other western States, all parts being medicinal. Gypsies brought leaves and seeds to Europe from Asia in the middle ages, and used the smoke therefrom to intoxicate their dupes. Leaves should be gathered while flowering, by pulling up entire plant, then quickly removing and drying, by which they often become broken or cut into pieces.

Constituents

Daturine .2-.4 p.c., volatile oil (containing daturic acid, CHO, chlorophyll, mucilage, albumin, potassium nitrate, ash 17-20 p.c.

Daturine. -- An alkaloid combined with malic (daturic) acid, and consisting of hyoscyamine, atropine (the former usually predominating), and probably little scopolamine (hyoscine); forms salts (hydrochloride, sulphate, etc.).  Dose, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-.001 Gm.).

Preparations

1. Extractum Stramonii.  Extract of Stramonium.  (Syn., Ext. Stramon.; Fr. Extrait de Feuilles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfelblattterextrakt.)

Manufacture

PILULAR, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p.c. alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough glucose for extract to contain 1 p.c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly.  POWDERED, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol, reserve first 100 cc. and continue until exhausted (100 cc.); reclaim alcohol from second percolate until residue in still is 10 cc., to which add first reserve and distill until residue of syrupy consistence; transfer to a dish, rinse still with little warm alcohol, which add to dish and evaporate at 70 degrees C. (150 degrees F.) to soft extract, frequently stirring, add dried starch 5 Gm., heat, with stirring, until nearly dry, thoroughly incorporate dried starch 2 Gm., expose to current of warm air until dry, pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 1 p.c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains .9-1.1 -- 1 p.c. of the alkaloids; 1 Gm. represents 4 Gm. of the drug.  Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.).

Prep.: 1.  Unguentum Stramonii, N.F., pilular ext. 10 p.c., hydrous wool fat 20, benzoinated lard 65, diluted alcohol 5.

2. Tinctura Stramonii.  Tincture of Stramonium; Fr. Teinture de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfeltinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Stimilar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: diluted alcohol--percolate 95 cc., assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 cc. to contain .0225-.0275 Gm. of total alkaloids.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).

3.  Fluidextractum Stramonii, N.F., (80 p.c. alcohol).  Dose mj-5 (.06-..3 cc.).

Unoff. Preps.: Plaster, Juice (Succus Stramonii), Cigarettes, Fomentation.

Properties

Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, diuretic, mydriatic.  Internally very similar but stronger than belladonna; weaker externally.  Large doses produce dry throat, cardiac irregularity, high fever with delirium, increase sexual desire, possibly laughing and hallucinations (like in cholera, alcoholism), dizziness, fainting, red eruptions, dilated pupils, insomnia, black objects appear green; pneumogastric becomes paralyzed, thus stopping the inhibitory action, hence whole system paralyzed finally by over-stimulation, including the heart, then delirium, stupor, convulsions, death by asphyxia; in case of recovery remember nothing that has occurred; does not affect some animals, as caterpillar, tribe, goats, etc.

Uses

Insanity, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, nervous asthma (gr. 15 (1 Gm.) of leaves smoked with tobacco or sage at each paroxysm), whooping- cough, dysmenorrhea, retention of urine, hepatic colic, laryngeal cough, chorea.  Ointment in ulcers, hemorrhoids, fissures, skin diseases, poison-ivy eruptions, rheumatism, bruises, sprains.  In the absence of belladonna may use stramonium with good results.

Poisoning, Incompatibles, Synergists: Same as for belladonna.

Allied Plants

1.  Datura Tat'ula, Purple Thorn-apple. -- Similar to official and considered by some the same, but has purple stems, petiole, and corolla; was recognized, along with D-Stramonium, U.S.P. 1910.

2.  D. Fastuo'sa (al'ba) -- Daturae Folia, Daturae Semina (Br.); India.  Used natively as a criminal poison; capsule small, subglobular, spinous, seed yellowish-brown, trangular, rough.  D. Met'el, Entire-leaved Thorn-apple, Africa, S. Asia; capsule and seed like (D. Fastuosa), (alba), leaves nearly entire, downy.  D. Sanguin'ea, Peru; large shrub, or tree, leaves nearly entire, downy beneath, flowers large, upper half of corolla yellow, lower half blood-red.